GSL / Offshore and International Law / Offshore zones / Baltics / Estonia / Legislation of Estonia

Legislation of Estonia

Service packages Legislation Tax System

List of laws and regulations

Act name
Scope of law
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Tax treaties entered

Albania
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Belarus
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
China
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Georgia
Germany
Greece
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Hong Kong
Нungary
Iceland
India
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jersey
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macedonia
Malta
Mexico
Moldova (Republic of)
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
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Singapore
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Spain
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Thailand
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Turkmenistan
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Uzbekistan

Tax Exchange Information Agreement (TEIA)

List of state regulatory authorities

Republic of Estonia Government
Estonian Investment Agency
Estonian Tax and Customs Board
Register of Economic Activities
Accounting Standards Board

Corporate info

Legal system
civil law
Types of entity
sole proprietorship; general partnership; limited partnership; private limited company; public limited company; commercial association; branch of a foreign company
Shelf companies permitted
Yes
Incorporation timescale for a new company
3 days
Company suffix
osaühing or OÜ
Sensitive words
word “Eesti” [Estonia] in all expressions and foreign language equivalents; geographic indicators; trade marks; “riigi” [state], “linna” [city] and “valla” [rural municipality]
Cyrillic alphabet permitted in company name
No
Local registered office
Yes
Local registered agent
No
Information to be kept at the registered office
No requirements
Seal required, type of seal
not required
Redomiciliation (to, from) permitted
permitted within the territory of the EU

Director and secretary

Minimum number of directors
1
Residency requirements for directors
Yes (at least half of directors must be EEA member country or Switzerland resident)
Corporate directors permitted
No
Directors’ meetings/frequency/location
No requirements
Disclosure to local agent
Yes
Disclosure to public
Yes
Company secretary required
No
Residency requirements for a secretary
No
Qualified secretary required
No
Corporate secretary permitted
No

Shareholder and beneficiary

Minimum number of shareholders
1
Residency requirements for shareholders
No
Corporate shareholder permitted
Yes
Meetings/frequency/location
Yes / annually / no requirements
Disclosure to local agent
Yes
Disclosure to public
Yes
Beneficiary info disclosure to
No

Shares and share capital

Minimum authorized share capital
2500
Minimum issued share capital
1 share
Minimum paid share capital
No requirements
Authorized capital payment deadlines
Before registration
Issued capital payment deadlines
Before registration
Standard currency
EUR
Standard authorized share capital
2500
Standard par value of shares
1
Shares with no par value permitted
No
Bearer shares permitted
No

Taxes

Personal tax
20%
Min. rate for corporate tax
20%
Corporate tax (in detail)
Income tax rate is 20%
Capital gains tax
Regular rate
Capital gains tax. Details
VAT
20%
VAT. Details
The standard VAT rate is 20%. A reduced rate of 9% applies to certain goods and services
Withholding tax
0%/0%/10%
Other taxes
Social contributions, Land tax
Exchange control
No
Government fee
No
Stamp duty
0.1-2.5% (real estate transactions)

Accounts

Requirement to prepare accounts
Yes
Requirement to file accounts
Yes
Publicly accessible accounts
Yes
Requirement to file Annual Return
Yes
Publicly accessible Annual Return
Yes
Audit required
No

General information shortly

Location
Northern Europe
Total area
45.227 sq. km
Population
1.328.360 (2020)
Capital
Tallinn
National currency
Euro
Conditional reduction of currency
EUR
Against USD
0.93 (2022)
Climate, average max and min t°
maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers; avg. maximum temperature +30°; avg. minimum temperature -8°
Time difference from Moscow
No
Dialing code
+372
State language
Estonian
Ethnic groups
Estonians 68.7%, Russians 24.8%, Ukrainians 1.7%, Belarusians 1%, Finns 0.6%, others 3.2%
Literacy rate
99.8%
History
The first Finno-Ugric tribes appeared here in the 3rd century BC. The territories remained independent up until the 13th century. From 1220 through 1918 Estonia was under a foreign rule. The southern part was occupied by the Livonian Order, and the northern part by Denmark. After the breakup of the Livonian Order, the northern part was conquered by the Swedish people and the southern part by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1645 Sweden acquired control over all the territories of Estonia. Following the end of the Great Northern War (1700 – 1721), Russia annexed the territories of Estonia and Latvia. Estonia declared its independence in 1918, but later was occupied by Germany and fought against the Soviet Union in 1918 - 1920. The first constitution established the parliamentary system of government. In 1934 K. Päts, Head of the Government, made a coup d’état and established a conservative dictatorship. The second constitution restored the parliamentarianism. In 1940 Estonia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. The Popular Front of Estonia and some other organizations demanded the separation from the Soviet Union. The Declaration of Sovereignty was adopted in 1988. In 1991 Estonia declared its independence. Later that year Estonia became a member of the United Nations and joined the European Union in 2004.
Credit rating
AA-
Government type
Parliamentary republic
Executive branch
President, Government: Prime Minister and Cabinet
Legislative branch
unicameral Parliament (101 seats)
Judicial branch
Supreme Court (Riigikohus), magistrate courts (courts of appeal), land courts (courts of first instance), State Attorney’s Office and district attorney’s office
Unemployment
6,8% (2020)
GDP per capita rank
42 (2020)
Corruption perceptions index rank
74 (2021)

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