GSL / International Taxation / Egypt

Egypt tax system - taxation of Egyptian companies and individuals: VAT, income tax and capital gains. Tax treaties of Egypt

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Taxes of Egypt

Сorporate tax
Capital gains tax
10% (dividend), 20% (interest), 20% (royalty)
Withholding tax
Exchange control

Basic taxes (briefly)

Personal tax
Corporate tax (in detail)
Corporate tax rate is 22,5%
Capital gains tax. Details
Standard rate
VAT. Details
Value added tax rate is 14%
Other taxes
Payroll tax, Real estate tax
Government fee
Stamp duty

Taxation of individuals

Individual income tax is levied on the total net income of resident individuals on income earned in Egypt as well as on income earned outside Egypt. The income of non-resident individuals derived from sources in Egypt is also taxed.

Income tax is levied on a progressive scale:

  • from 0 to EGP 40 000 is exempt from taxation;
  • from EGP 40 000 to EGP 55 000 is taxed at 10%;
  • from EGP 55 000 to EGP 70 000 is taxed at 15%;
  • from EGP 70 000 to EGP 200 000 is taxed at 20%;
  • from EGP 200 000 to EGP 400 000 is taxed at 22,5%;
  • from EGP 400 000 to EGP 1 200 000 is taxed at 25%;
  • over EGP 1 200 000 is taxed at 27,5%.

This progressive taxation scale also applies to non-residents on income that they receive from the Egyptian treasury or for work done in Egypt.

Income tax

Resident companies are taxed on worldwide income. Non-resident companies pay tax on profits derived from their permanent establishments in Egypt.

The corporate income tax rate in Egypt is 22,5% of the company's net taxable income. This rate applies to all activities, with the exception of oil companies, whose profits are taxed at a rate of 40,55%. In addition, the profits of the Suez Canal Authority, the Egyptian Petroleum Authority and the Central Bank of Egypt are taxed at 40%.


The standard rate of Value Added Tax / VAT is 14%. Also in some cases a reduced rate of 5% or even 0% can be applied. The standard rate applies to almost all goods and services, the reduced rate applies mainly to production equipment.

The VAT Act exempts a number of basic goods and services that affect low-income persons (in addition to other exceptions listed in the law). It also provides for a reverse charge mechanism whereby transactions involving non-residents providing services to Egyptian resident entities are subject to VAT in Egypt.

Electronic invoicing

According to Ministry of Finance Decree No. 188 of March 26, 2020, taxpayers are required to issue their bills electronically in accordance with the technical and legal requirements issued by the head of the Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA).

Withholding tax


A withholding tax of 10% is imposed on dividends paid by Egyptian companies to non-resident corporate shareholders on shares not listed on the Egyptian Exchange (Egyptian Exchange / EGX).

A flat rate of 5% withholding tax applies to dividends paid to non-resident corporate shareholders from shares listed on the EGX.


Interest on loans to private sector companies for more than 3 years is exempt from withholding tax, while loans for less than 3 years are subject to a 20% withholding tax.


Royalty payments are subject to a 20% withholding tax.

Payment for services

Payments for services are subject to withholding tax at the rate of 20%.

For all listed income from sources in Egypt, the applicable withholding tax rate may be reduced or eliminated altogether under the applicable Double Taxation Treaty (DTT).

CFC rules

Egypt does not currently impose specific rules for controlled foreign companies (CFCs).

Transfer Pricing

Transfer pricing rules follow the arm's length principle, indicating that any transaction between related parties must be concluded on market terms (i.e., at market value).

The Egyptian IRS may adjust the prices of transactions between related parties if the transaction includes elements that would not be included in transactions between unrelated parties and whose purpose is to shift the tax burden to non-taxable entities. In this case, the tax authorities may determine taxable income on a price-neutral basis.

Real Property Tax

The property tax law takes into account various variables that can affect property values, such as location, the value of similar buildings and the economic situation of the area in which the property is located.

Property tax is levied annually on all constructed properties except schools, orphanages, charities and private homes with a market value of less than EGP 2 000 000. The tax also applies to land and buildings, with the exception of machinery and equipment.

The real estate tax rate is 10% of the value of the real estate (the calculation of the value of the real estate will be different for residential and non-residential properties).

Social contributions.

Egypt has begun implementing a new comprehensive health insurance system starting in 2019. The law on the new health insurance system came into force on July 12, 2018. The new system consists of 6 phases and will be implemented over 15 years. Each phase will cover 5 provinces simultaneously, with the provinces of Cairo and Giza, among others, to be included in the new system in the final implementation phase. The new health insurance system is to be financed from several sources, among which:

  • A contribution of 0,25% of total annual income - to be paid by all entities and such contribution cannot be deducted as an expense for income tax purposes;
  • EGP 0,75 of the value of each pack of cigarettes sold (local or foreign) - this value will increase every 3 years until it reaches EGP 1,50;
  • 10% of the value of each unit of tobacco products sold (except cigarettes);
  • Charges of EGP 1 000 to EGP 15 000 paid by hospitals, medical clinics, treatment centers, pharmacies and pharmaceutical companies for subscribing to the new health insurance system.

Individuals wishing to take advantage of the new health insurance system will have to pay a subscription fee (so-called subscription) depending on the category to which they belong:

  • The employer will pay a subscription fee of 4% of the employee's socially insurable wages and the employee will pay 1% of wages to reach a total of 5%;
  • The employee will pay a contribution of 3% of wages to insure their spouse against unemployment (or lack of a stable fixed income);
  • The employee will pay a contribution of 1% of wages subject to social security for insurance for each dependent;
  • Business owners, self-employed professionals, and Egyptian

International tax treaties

Egypt has 61 Double Tax Treaties (DTC) with the following jurisdictions:

61 DTCS: Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

In addition, Egypt has signed and ratified the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI). The MLI entered into force for Egypt on January 1, 2021.

Currency control

There are no currency controls.

Tax Reporting

Taxpayers are obliged to calculate and file their income tax return for each fiscal year.

Income tax returns must be filed within 4 months after the end of the fiscal year; therefore, if a company's fiscal year ends on December 31, tax returns must be filed by the end of April of the following year.

Other returns, such as the VAT return, are filed monthly.

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