357.021 sq. km
Conditional reduction of currency
Climate, average max and min t°
Temperate continental climate,middle temperature (July) +16/+22°; middle temperature (January) 0°
Time difference from Moscow
- 2 hours
German 92%, post-Soviet emigrants 2,69%, Turks 2,14%, other 3,17%
Various Germanic tribes have occupied what is now northern Germany and southern Scandinavia since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented by the Romans before AD 100. During the Migration Period that coincided with the decline of the Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes expanded southward and established kingdoms throughout much of Europe. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. The rise of Pan-Germanism inside the German Confederation, which had been occupied during the Napoleonic Wars, resulted in the unification of most of the German states in 1871 into the Prussian dominated German Empire.
After the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and the military defeat in World War I, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic and lost some of its territory as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. Despite its prominence in many scientific and cultural fields at that time, Germany experienced significant economic and political instability, which intensified during the Great Depression. The establishment of the Third Reich, or Nazi Regime, in 1933 eventually led to World War II and the Holocaust. After the defeat of 1945, Germany was divided by Allied occupation, and evolved into two states, East Germany and West Germany. In 1990, the country was reunified.
Federal parliamentary republic
Federal government consisting of a chancellor and ministers
bicameral parliament: Bundestag and Bundesrat
Federal Supreme Court (Bundesgerichtshof), Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), Federal Administrative Court, federal Labor Court, Federal Social Court and Federal Finance Court
GDP per capita rank
Corruption perceptions index rank