Canada is a North American state with a population of 38.556.180 (2021). It is washed by the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans and borders the United States in the south and northwest (Alaska), also has maritime borders with Denmark (Greenland) in the northeast and France (Saint Pierre and Miquelon) in the east.
The area of Canada is 9.984.670 sq. km - the largest state in terms of area on this continent and the second in the world.
The population density is one of the lowest in the world (3.92 people per 1 sq. km).
Ethnic composition Canadians (30.9%), English (20.1%), French (15.1%), Scots (14.5%), Irish (13.3%), Germans (9.7%) , Italians (4.4%), Chinese (4.1%), Indians (3.8%), Ukrainians (3.7%), Dutch (3.2%), Poles (3%), Indians (3 %), Russian (1.5%).
The capital of Canada is Ottawa.
Official languages are English, French.
The national currency is the Canadian dollar (CAD). 1 US dollar equals 1.27 CAD.
Climate Average January and July temperatures vary for each region of the country. Winters can be very severe in some regions of the country, with average monthly temperatures reaching -15°C in the southern part of the country, and sometimes as low as -45°C with strong icy winds. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Canada is -63°C (in the Yukon). The coast of British Columbia, especially Vancouver Island, is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with mild and rainy winters. Summer temperatures can reach +35 °C, even +40 °C
The time difference with Moscow is minus 8 hours.
The literacy rate is 99%.
Phone code - +1.
Canada was founded by Jacques Cartier in 1534. However, indigenous archaeological and genetic studies have confirmed human presence in northern Yukon since about 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario since 9,500 years ago.
At the beginning of the 17th century the French established their first colonies. In 1610 England founded the city of St. John’s, Newfoundland.
The Seven Years’ War between France and England led to the supremacy of Great Britain over these territories. In 1797 Canada was divided into Lower Canada and Upper Canada which were merged into the united Province of Canada in 1840.
The Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were united in 1866.
In 1867 Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
In 1919 Canada joins the League of Nations. In 1931, the Statute of Westminster confirms the fact that henceforth no law of the British Parliament extends to the territory of Canada without its consent, and the competence of the Canadian government is expanded in international and domestic affairs. In 1945, the country becomes one of the founding members of the United Nations.
Finally, Canada gained its independence in 1982. In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.
At the present time it is a federal state consisting of ten provinces and three territories.
The provinces, within the framework of their legislative powers, rights and privileges stipulated in the Constitution, are independent of the federal government and of each other.
Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy.
The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's ten provinces. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada carries out most of the federal royal duties in Canada.
Executive power is vested in the government - the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada, the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons.
Legislative power is vested in the Parliament, comprised by the Queen (represented by the Governor General), Senate and House of Commons. The 105 members of the Senate are not elected but appointed by the Governor General. Their seats are apportioned on a regional basis, and they serve until age 75. The House of Commons consists of 308 members who are elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding.
Judiciary power is vested in the Queen (the head of judiciary) and Royal courts. All the provincial and federal courts are organized like a four-level pyramid. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court instance in the country which delivers final sentence. It controls Federal Court of Appeal as well as all the provincial courts of appeal. The lower courts are Federal Court, Tax Court, high courts and provincial courts.
Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8).
As with other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada has a mixed economy. According to the index of Heritage Foundation it has a lower level of economic freedom than in the United States, but a higher level than in the most West European countries.
Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. Canada is a leading manufacturer of zinc and uranium, and is a leading exporter of many other minerals, such as gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, Coking Coal, and lead.
Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centered in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.
Canada is one of the world's top ten trading nations. The largest importers are the United States, Great Britain and Japan.
Canada is one of a few developed countries which exports energy products.
Manufacturing of transport vehicles, paper, chemicals, and steel is highly developed. Hamilton is the largest steel manufacturing city in Canada.