Conditional reduction of currency
Climate, average max and min t°
Temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers; avg. maximum temperature (July) +30°; avg. minimum temperature (January) 0°
Time difference from Moscow
- 1 hour
88.6% Austrians, 5.1% ex-Yugoslavs, 2.7% Federal Germans, 2.2% Turks, 1.4% other
The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the farming communities of the early Stone Age to the present sovereign state. The name Ostarrîchi (Austria) has been in use since 996 CE when it was a margravate of the Duchy of Bavaria and from 1156 an independent duchy (later archduchy) of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Heiliges Römisches Reich 962–1806). During this time Austria was dominated by the House of Habsburg (Haus Österreich) from 1273 to 1806, when the old empire came to an end.
Austria then emerged into the nineteenth century as the Austrian Empire, a part of the German Confederation until the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 excluded her, after which Austria continued as the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918) as a dual monarchy with Hungary.
When this empire collapsed in 1918 after the end of World War I, Austria was reduced to the main German speaking areas of the empire corresponding to its current frontiers and adopted the name German Austria, since it wanted to join the new German Weimar Republic. This union was forbidden by the victorious Allies at the Treaty of Versailles.
Following the First Republic (1918–1933) Austrofascism tried to keep Austria independent from the German Reich, but in 1938 it was annexed by Nazi Germany with the support of the majority of the Austrian people. After the Second World War Austria again became an independent republic as the Second Republic in 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
Federal government headed by the Federal Chancellor
bicameral Parliament composed of Nationalrat (183 seats) and Bundesrat (62 seats)
district courts; land courts; four courts of appeal; supreme court
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