Conditional reduction of currency
Climate, average max and min t°
Modified continental with mild winters, cool summers; avg. maximum temperature (July) +22°С; avg. minimum temperature (January) +2°С
Time difference from Moscow
+ 1 hour
Luxembourgish, German, French
Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, etc.
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the nominal control of the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Head of State (the Grand Duke) and Government
Chamber of Deputies (60 members) and Council of State (advisory body)
Superior Court of Justice (includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation), Administrative Tribunal, Administrative Court, Constitutional Court
GDP per capita rank
Corruption perceptions index rank