Greece tax system - taxation of Greek companies and individuals: VAT, income tax and capital gains. Tax treaties of Greece.
Basic taxes (briefly)
|Corporate tax (in detail)||The rate of corporate income tax is 22%|
|Capital gains tax. Details||Capital gains are generally included in the general tax base.|
|VAT. Details||The standard VAT rate is 24%. The 13% rate applies to certain types of goods and services.|
|Other taxes||State real estate tax, Real estate transfer tax, Inheritance, gift and parental gift tax|
International tax agreement
|Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, USA, Uzbekistan|
|Bermuda, Cayman islands, Cook Islands, Gibraltar, Samoa|
Taxation of individuals
Tax residents are taxed on their worldwide income and non-residents on income from sources in Greece.
Income tax is levied at progressive rates.
The following rates apply to employment remuneration, pensions and commercial income:
- 9% - on the first 10,000 EUR;
- 22% - on the next 10,000 EUR;
- 28% - for the next 10,000 EUR;
- 36% - on the next 10 000 EUR;
- 44% - on income exceeding 40,000 EUR.
Income from real estate is taxed at the following rates:
- 15% - on the first 12,000 EUR;
- 35% - on the next 23 000 EUR;
- 45% - on amounts exceeding 35 000 EUR.
Special contribution of solidarity is payable at the following rates:
- 0% - on income up to 12,000 EUR;
- 2.2% - on income between 12,001 and 20,000 EUR;
- 5% - on income from 20,001 to 30,000 EUR;
- 6.5% - on income between 30,001 and 40,000 EUR;
- 7.5% - on income from 40,001 to 65,000 EUR;
- 9% - on income from 65,001 to 220,000 EUR;
- 10% - on income over 220,000 EUR.
For 2020, this contribution was abolished for all types of income except labor remuneration and pensions.
For 2021, this contribution has been abolished for private sector labor remuneration.
Corporate income tax is paid at a rate of 22%.
Capital gains are generally included in the general tax base.
Profits from the sale of shares in EU companies are exempt from taxation if the shareholding is more than 10% and the ownership lasts at least 24 months.
Dividend income is taxable. However, if a number of conditions are met, including a shareholding of at least 10% in an EU company and a holding of at least 24 months, dividends may not be taxed.
Social contributions are payable on employees' remuneration and depend on the social fund where the employee is registered.
EFKA social contribution rates are 14.12% for employees and 24.54% for employers. The maximum remuneration on which these contributions are payable is EUR 6,500 per month.
The standard rate of VAT is 24%.
A rate of 13% applies to certain types of goods and services.
Withholding tax is levied at a rate of 5% on dividends, 15% on interest, 20% on royalties, 20% on technical, managerial, consulting and other services.
There are certain exemptions.
Tax may be withheld on certain other payments of income.
Tax rates are reduced in accordance with double taxation treaties and EU directives.
Tax on movable property (ENFIA)
This tax is composed of a basic and additional taxes calculated at specific rates based on the area of the property, applying a number of coefficients, taking into account location, type of use, etc.
Inheritance and gift tax
Inheritance tax is paid on inherited movable and immovable objects.
The tax is calculated at progressive rates from 1% to 40%, depending on the degree of kinship and several other factors.
Tax is also paid when receiving gifts, including from parents at progressive rates, depending on the value of the object, its type, as well as the degree of kinship of the parties.
Real estate transfer tax
Transfers of real estate that are not subject to VAT are subject to real estate transfer tax.
The tax rate is 3%.
In addition, an additional 3% is payable to the municipalities.
Non-residential rentals are subject to stamp duty at a rate of 3.6% (except for shopping centers and logistics centers whose rentals are subject to VAT).
Stamp duty at the rate of 2.4% may be levied on loans. However, there are exceptions, in particular for bank loans and bond issues.
Stamp duty may be levied in a number of other cases.
Capital appreciation fee
A capital increase fee may be levied at the rate of 1%.
Undistributed profits of controlled foreign companies are included in the tax base of Greek tax residents if the following conditions are met:
The taxpayer directly or indirectly, individually or jointly with related parties, owns more than 50% of the shares, voting rights or the right to receive more than 50% of the profits of the foreign company.
The income tax paid by the foreign company is less than half of the tax that would be paid in Greece on such income.
More than 30% of the income of a foreign company is represented by passive income (interest, dividends, royalties, etc.).
These rules may not apply to companies in the EU/EEA if they have a significant economic activity with appropriate personnel and assets which can be proven accordingly.
International tax treaties
Greece has concluded 56 Double Tax Treaties (DTC) and 4 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEA) with the following jurisdictions:
56 DTCs: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, USA, Uzbekistan.
4 TIEAs: Bermuda, Cayman islands, Cook Islands, Gibraltar, Samoa.
Greece has also signed and ratified the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI). The MLI entered into force for Greece on July 1, 2021.
Foreign Exchange Control
Greece has no currency controls.
Taxes of Greece
|Min. rate for corporate tax||22%|
|Capital gains tax||Regular rate|